High Blood Pressure Articles and Abstracts

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"Down with high blood pressure," a theme with a warning for physicians
Balossi, E. C. and J. H. Hauger-Klevene (1979), Bull Pan Am Health Organ 13(3): 249-52.

"High blood pressure" in adolescent, 18 to 21 year-old males.
Hartleben, H. (1962), Rev Int Serv Sante Armees 35: 279-87.

"Normal" alcohol consumption--one of the causes of high blood pressure, obesity and atherosclerosis
Kornhuber, H. H. (1986), Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax 75(52): 1577-9.

"Significant" diastolic hypertension in pre-high school black and white children. The children and adolescent blood pressure program
Sinaiko, A. R., O. Gomez-Marin, et al. (1988), Am J Hypertens 1(2): 178-80.
Abstract: The Second Task Force on Blood Pressure Control in Children defines "significant" hypertension as blood pressure persistently above the 95th percentile for age-sex specific distribution. In this report we present preliminary data on the prevalence of significant diastolic hypertension in pre-high school black and white children after repeated blood pressure measurements. Blood pressure was measured in 10,446 children two times at an initial screening in school and remeasured two times at a rescreening in 2,808 children from the upper 30 percentiles of the initial screening distribution. Significant hypertension was found in 653 children (6.3%) after the first screening measurement and in 475 children (4.5%) after averaging the first two screening measurements. At the rescreening, the prevalence of significant hypertension was further reduced in this cohort to 1% after one measurement and to 0.8% after averaging the two measurements. The prevalence of significant systolic hypertension had fallen to 0.47% after averaging the two rescreening measurements. These data suggest that the prevalence of significant hypertension is very low in pre-high school children.

1 in 100 children has too high blood pressure values. Interview by Dr. nat. rer. Anita Schweiger.
Brijnen von Oldershausen, M. (1998), Fortschr Med 116(3): 37-8.

1980 recommendations of the Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure
Krishan, I. and M. Moser (1980), Hypertension 2(6): 821-2.

1984 revised guideline reported by the Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure
Nakashima, Y. and K. Arakawa (1985), Nippon Rinsho 43(9): 2000-9.

1988 report of the Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: a commentary
Schuna, A. A. (1988), Clin Pharm 7(11): 837-41.

1990-2000: progress in determining high blood pressure genes
Munroe, P. B., J. Knight, et al. (2000), Ann Acad Med Singapore 29(3): 357-63.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: This article attempts to summarise the genetic research that has taken place during the past decade to determine the identity of genes causing high blood pressure. METHODS: Candidate gene studies and genome-wide scanning have been the methods primarily employed, and studies have been performed in both experimental models (rats and mice) and human volunteers (sibling-pairs and case-control). Key studies from the past 10 years are discussed, in addition to the congenic strains. RESULTS: Genome-wide scans and candidate gene studies in both rat and man have generated many chromosomal regions and loci involved in blood pressure regulation. However, much work is still required to fine map the large chromosomal regions found in the genome-wide scans and to isolate variants in candidate genes and prove that they are disease-causing. CONCLUSIONS: It is anticipated that within the next 5 to 10 years at least one blood pressure susceptibility gene will be identified in rat and possibly some in man. It is hoped that the identification of genes controlling blood pressure will enable investigators to determine physiological/biochemical pathways defective in hypertensive patients. This information may then be utilised to identify specific hypertensive phenotypes, to tailor therapy appropriately for patients and hopefully to develop novel therapeutic agents for hypertension.

2003 update of the Guidelines of the Spanish Society of Cardiology on High Blood Pressure
Gonzalez-Juanatey, J. R., P. Mazon Ramos, et al. (2003), Rev Esp Cardiol 56(5): 487-97.
Abstract: Since publication of the Spanish Society of Cardiology Clinical Practice Guidelines on High Blood Pressure in January 2000, a new body of scientific evidence has been obtained that needs to be taken into account in clinical practice. A complete clinical evaluation by assessment of the global cardiovascular risk score should be done in patients with hypertension. In this connection, ECG findings and urine albumin excretion are of particular value. Up to now, the results of most important clinical trials indicate that the aim should be to normalize blood pressure, with stricter control in patients at higher risk (diabetes, target organ damage or left ventricular hypertrophy). Antihypertensive therapy should be selected on an individual basis, taking in account that patients with certain associated pathologies will benefit more from particular groups of drugs. Those with diabetes or left ventricular hypertrophy seem to benefit from pharmacological block of the renin-angiotensin system, and patients with heart failure from combined therapy with ACE inhibitors plus beta-blockers.

24-hour blood pressure recordings in Dahl rats on high- and low-salt diets
Brown, D. R., D. A. Morgan, et al. (1989), Am J Physiol 257(5 Pt 2): R1225-31.
Abstract: The goal of this study was to determine if the baroreflex abnormality previously shown in Dahl-sensitive (DS) rats would increase blood pressure and heart rate (HR) variability. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and HR were sampled every 2 s for 24 h from Dahl-resistant (DR) and DS rats on low- and high-salt diets (n = 12-13 in each group). MAP +/- SD was significantly elevated in the DS rats on high-salt diets (DSH); the SD of MAP in the DSH rats was also significantly higher compared with similar measurements in rats on high-salt diets (DRH) and DS rats on low-salt diets (DSL) when SD was divided by MAP. MAP was higher at night than during the day in the DSH rats. In contrast, HR and HR variability were not significantly different between the groups. The baroreflex control of HR, determined by means of graded injections of phenylephrine, was least in the DSH rats and increased, respectively, with DSL rats, DRH rats, and DR rats on low-salt diets. There was no significant correlation between the baroreflex control of HR and MAP or the SD of MAP in the DSH rats, suggesting that there is not a simple relationship between baroreflex gain and the overall behavior of MAP in DSH rats.

A "touch" of high blood pressure
Moser, M. (2002), J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 4(1): 10-2.

A 10-year follow-up of men with mild hypertension. Bendroflumethiazide and propranolol give equal effect in treatment of high blood pressure
Andersson, O. K., B. Widgren, et al. (1985), Lakartidningen 82(13): 1159-62.

A chronic high-salt diet fails to enhance blood pressure reactivity to a tone associated with footshock in SHR, BHR, and WKY rats
Lawler, J. E., S. K. Naylor, et al. (1993), Physiol Behav 54(5): 941-6.
Abstract: Both the human and animal literatures suggest that reactivity to stress is enhanced in the presence of a positive family history of hypertension. There is also some suggestive evidence, though not as strong, that a high-salt diet will enhance reactivity to stress, at least in a subpopulation of individuals. In the present study, rats with zero (Wistar-Kyoto, or WKY), one (borderline hypertensive, or BHR), or two (spontaneously hypertensive, or SHR) hypertensive parents were placed on a normal or high (8% in chow)-salt diet for 8 weeks starting at 8 weeks of age. After 6 weeks on the appropriate diet, rats were stressed daily for 5 days. Each session consisted of 28 foot shock trials preceded by a tone. On the following week, animals were instrumented with femoral artery catheters. After a 2-day recovery period, they were again subjected to the experimental paradigm, during which blood pressure was continuously monitored. Differences were found with respect to blood pressure reactivity and family history: SHR were the most reactive to the tone associated with foot shock. However, no effects of salt on reactivity were observed, despite an effect of this manipulation on basal blood pressure. The effect of foot shock itself was also studied, and revealed that BHR showed a blood pressure reactivity response intermediate between SHR and WKY. Once again, no effects of the salt manipulation were seen. In conclusion, while the data support a relationship between family history of hypertension and reactivity to stress, they do not support a relationship between salt intake and reactivity to stress.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

A clinical trial to improve high blood pressure care in young urban black men: recruitment, follow-up, and outcomes
Hill, M. N., L. R. Bone, et al. (1999), Am J Hypertens 12(6): 548-54.
Abstract: This randomized trial recruited and followed underserved, inner-city, hypertensive (HTN), young black men and investigated whether a nurse-community health worker team in combination with usual medical care (SI) increased entry into care and reduced high blood pressure (HBP), in comparison to usual medical care (UC) alone. Emergency department records, advertising, and BP screenings identified potential participants with HBP. Telephone calls and personal contacts tracked enrollees. Of 1391 potential participants, 803 (58%) responded to an invitation to be screened and scheduled a visit. Of these, 528 (66%) kept an appointment, 207 (35%) were BP eligible, and 204 (99%) consented to enroll. At 12 months 91% of men were accounted for and 85.8% (adjusted for death, in jail, or moved away) were seen. Mean BP changed from 153(16)/98(10) to 152(19)/94(11) mm Hg in the SI group and 151(18)/98(11) to 147(21)/92(14) mm Hg in the UC group (P = NS). High rates of participation are attainable in this population; however, culturally acceptable ways of delivering HBP care are needed.

A comparison of blood pressure load in groups of children with high and low levels of neuroticism
Pijanowska, M., M. Zajaczkowska, et al. (2001), Pol Merkuriusz Lek 10(58): 274-6.
Abstract: The significance of mental stress in the etiology and pathogenesis of essential hypertension is still a matter of disputes and controversies. The authors wondered if normotensive children prone to stress reactions show significant abnormalities in their ABPM patterns. The aim of this study was comparison of blood pressure loads in children of high and low neuroticism levels. 121 healthy children underwent the psychometric test evaluating the level of neuroticism. From this group 43 children with the lowest and 33 children with the highest levels of neuroticism were selected. The groups were comparable in respect of age, gender, overweight, obesity and low birth weight. 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed. Average systolic and diastolic blood pressure loads were calculated. In neurotic boys and girls considered together and girls analysed separately both systolic and diastolic blood pressure loads were significantly higher than in their low-neurotic counterparts. In boys only systolic blood pressure load difference between high and low-neurotic group was statistically significant. Diastolic blood pressure load only tended to be higher in neurotic boys, without statistical significance. In our study neurotic children demonstrated in general significantly higher blood pressure loads than low-neurotic children. The prognostic value of this difference has not yet been determined. Perhaps further investigation would prove risk of developing hypertension in neurotic children with levels of blood pressure loads as observed in our study. If so, introducing of hypertension preventive measures could be profitable in neurotic children.

A comparison of compliance techniques on the control of high blood pressure
Binstock, M. L. and K. L. Franklin (1988), Am J Hypertens 1(3 Pt 3): 192S-194S.
Abstract: Four compliance strategies were compared with education alone to investigate their impact on the control of high blood pressure. One hundred twelve subjects with documented high blood pressure were randomly assigned to receive education alone, home blood pressure monitoring, contracts, pill packs, or a combination of techniques. Groups were similar in terms of age, sex, race, initial blood pressure, and medications. At the end of the year, there was no significant change in blood pressure for the group that received education alone (-3/-1 mm Hg). There was a statistically significant change in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure for all compliance groups (-17/-10 mm Hg). Information from compliance questionnaires adds further support to the observation that education alone does not influence compliance while the specific techniques studied did improve compliance. The study was too small to show any difference among techniques.

A comparison of the management of severe high blood pressure between 1999 and 2003 in France
Bertin, N., B. Salanave, et al. (2004), Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss 97(7-8): 793-8.
Abstract: AIM: To measure the change in blood-pressure control in two populations of patients with severe high blood pressure between 1999 and 2003. METHOD: The French National Healthcare Fund performed two observational, cross-sectional surveys on the medical management of high blood pressure, the first in 1999 and the second in 2003. Each survey enrolled patients aged between 20 and 80 years old who filed a first-time request for exemption from co-payments for this long-term disorder. Study data was collected by the health fund's salaried physician advisors who directly examined the patients and from information gathered from each patient's attending physician. Adequate blood pressure control was defined according to the guidelines set out by the ANAES in 1997 and determined by calculating the average of the last three blood pressure figures recorded by the patient's attending physician (systolic SBP and diastolic DBP arterial blood pressures). RESULTS: 10,665 patients were enrolled in the 1999 survey and 2,584 were enrolled in the 2003 survey. The average age was 63.1 +/- 0.2 years in 1999 and 64.4 +/- 0.4 years in 2003. The proportion of diabetic patients in the two surveys remained stable: 27.5% +/- 1.0 in 1999 and 28.4% +/- 1.7 in 2003. Between 1999 and 2003, the percentage of patient who were treated for hypercholesterolemia increased from 44.0% +/- 1.1 to 54.3% +/- 1.9. Between 1999 and 2003, the proportion of patients who were considered well-controlled (SBP and DBP < 140/90 mmHg) or, if older than 60 years with isolated systolic high blood pressure (DBP < 90 mmHg and SBP < or = 160 mmHg) increased almost 5% points, going from 40.8% +/- 1.1 in 1999 to 45.5% +/- 1.9 in 2003. In diabetic patients, in whom the cut-off threshold is 130/85 mmHg, 6.7% +/- 1.1 were considered well-controlled in 1999 while 5.4% +/- 1.7 were deemed well-controlled in 2003. The proportion of well-controlled patients in the sub-group of hypertensive patients with renal failure (cut-off thresholds: 125/75 mmHg) remained relatively stable between 1999 and 2003: 5.2% 2.5; 7.9 versus 2.8% 0.5; 8.6. CONCLUSION: There was a significant increase in the proportion of well-controlled hypertensive patients between 1999 and 2003. This increase occurred at the same time as a number of initiatives (scientific societies, federal government as well as the National Health Fund) intended to sensitize physicians to the need to obtain adequate blood pressure control.

A comparison of the prevalence and risk factors of high blood pressure among Japanese living in Japan, Hawaii, and Los Angeles
Imazu, M., K. Sumida, et al. (1996), Public Health Rep 111 Suppl 2: 59-61.
Abstract: THE AUTHORS STUDIED THE PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS of hypertension in samples of 2053 Japanese ages 40 to 70 in Hiroshima, Hawaii, and Los Angeles. The prevalence of hypertension (systolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 90 mmHg, or receiving antihypertensive drug treatment) was higher in Hawaii and Los Angeles for both sexes and almost all ages than in Hiroshima. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of hypertension in Hawaii, Los Angeles, and Hiroshima was 42.6%, 37.2%, and 29.7%. Hypertension was associated with a significant elevation in serum glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels in the combined participant population of Hawaii, Los Angeles, and Hiroshima. Age- and sex-adjusted mean values of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and insulin were highest in Hawaii and lowest in Hiroshima. The mean body mass index and 2-hour serum glucose levels were greatest in Hawaii and equal in the two other cohorts. These results suggest that hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia may explain the prevalence of hypertension in the research participants.

A familial disorder with hypokalemic alkalosis, hyperreninemia, aldosteronism, high urinary prostaglandins and normal blood pressure that is not "Bartter's syndrome"
Gullner, H. G., J. R. Gill, Jr., et al. (1979), Trans Assoc Am Physicians 92: 175-88.

A family set method for estimating heredity and stress. I. A pilot survey of blood pressure among Negroes in high and low stress areas, Detroit, 1966-1967
Harburg, E., W. J. Schull, et al. (1970), J Chronic Dis 23(2): 69-81.

A fermented milk high in bioactive peptides has a blood pressure-lowering effect in hypertensive subjects
Seppo, L., T. Jauhiainen, et al. (2003), Am J Clin Nutr 77(2): 326-30.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE; EC plays a dual role in the regulation of hypertension: it catalyzes the production of the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II and it inactivates the vasodilator bradykinin. By inhibiting these processes, ACE inhibitors have antihypertensive effects. Peptides derived from milk proteins can have ACE-inhibiting properties and may thus be used as antihypertensive components. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the long-term blood pressure-lowering effect of milk fermented by Lactobacillus helveticus LBK-16H in hypertensive subjects. DESIGN: In a randomized placebo-controlled study, 39 hypertensive patients received 150 mL/d of either L. helveticus LBK-16H fermented milk or a control product for 21 wk after a 2-wk run-in period. During the run-in period, the average baseline diastolic and systolic blood pressure values were 155 and 97 mm Hg, respectively, in the test product group and 152 and 96 mm Hg, respectively, in the control group. After the run-in period, blood pressure was measured at home on the same day every week with the use of an automatic blood pressure recorder. RESULTS: There was a mean difference of 6.7 +/- 3.0 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure (P = 0.030) and of 3.6 +/- 1.9 mm Hg (P = 0.059) in diastolic blood pressure between the test product and control groups. Demographic factors had no significant effect on the responses. CONCLUSION: L. helveticus LBK-16H fermented milk containing bioactive peptides in normal daily use has a blood pressure-lowering effect in hypertensive subjects.

A five-year follow-up study on blood pressure and serum cholesterol in junior high school children
Omura, T., Y. Takizawa, et al. (1991), Nippon Koshu Eisei Zasshi 38(6): 417-24.
Abstract: Blood pressure and serum cholesterol changes over a five-year period were studied in 299 junior high school children (127 males and 172 females) examined during 1980-1984 in Akita Prefecture, Japan. The six factors studied were height, weight, body mass index (by Minowa's method), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and serum cholesterol. Mean values for systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased more than 10 mmHg during the five years in both sexes. Significant positive correlations between initial and follow-up blood pressure ('tracking') were observed. The correlation coefficients for systolic blood pressure in males and in females were 0.33 and 0.28 respectively, and those for diastolic blood pressure were 0.36 in males and 0.19 in females. While there were no significant differences in serum cholesterol levels between the two periods in either sex, the correlation coefficients, which were higher than those for blood pressure, were 0.55 in males and 0.45 in females. Among the six factors at each period, significant positive correlations were observed between height and systolic blood pressure at the initial period, and between obesity and systolic blood pressure at both periods in males and females. A significant positive relationship between obesity and serum cholesterol was seen at the follow-up period in both sexes. These data suggest that a moderate degree of 'tracking' occurs in blood pressure and serum cholesterol during childhood, and that obesity is an important factor related to blood pressure and serum cholesterol.

A high performance isolated rat brain preparation. Part II. Cerebral blood flow in relation to perfusion pressure and cerebral hypothermia
Takaoka, Y., R. J. White, et al. (1985), Resuscitation 12(4): 261-4.
Abstract: The effects of changes of perfusion pressure and hypothermia on the cerebral blood flow of a new isolated rat brain preparation have been studied in 7 animals. The cerebral blood flow was extremely sensitive to the mean arterial pressure of perfusion, showing little evidence of autoregulation at low pressure, and only slight evidence in hypertension. The cerebral blood flow was lower in hypothermia. The preparation maintained good electroencephalographic activity throughout, and arteriovenous differences persisted up to 1 h after it became isoelectric.

A high phosphate diet lowers blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats
Bindels, R. J., L. A. van den Broek, et al. (1987), Hypertension 9(1): 96-102.
Abstract: Plasma phosphate values are significantly lower in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) than in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). In this study, we increased plasma phosphate in SHR by a dietary phosphate intake and followed the effects on blood pressure. Fifteen male WKY and 15 male SHR were housed from 4 weeks of age up to 26 weeks. At 4 weeks of age all SHR manifested a hypophosphatemia compared with age-matched WKY (F = 62, p less than 0.0003). At 5 weeks of age, the rats were divided into three diet groups: a control group, a group receiving 1.41% (wt/vol) KCl in drinking water, and a group receiving 2% (wt/vol) K2HPO4 X KH2PO4 in drinking water. In the control (F = 16.2, p less than 0.02) and KCl groups, (F = 36.3, p less than 0.03), hypophosphatemia persisted throughout the study. The phosphate-supplemented diet normalized plasma phosphate level in SHR but did not change plasma phosphate level in WKY. As a consequence, no difference in plasma phosphate level between WKY and SHR was present in the group receiving additional phosphate from that time on (F = 1.2, p greater than 0.41). The phosphate-supplemented diet significantly decreased systolic blood pressure in both strains. In phosphate-supplemented SHR, a significant decline in systolic blood pressure was observed from 20 weeks of age on (at 20 weeks of age: 222 +/- 3 mm Hg for control SHR vs 198 +/- 5 mm Hg for phosphate-supplemented SHR; p less than 0.0003).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

A high pressure liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of zearalenone in chicken blood
Turner, G. V., T. D. Phillips, et al. (1982), J Environ Sci Health B 17(4): 297-309.
Abstract: A high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method is described to determine zearalenone in chicken blood. Samples are extracted with acetonitrile, followed by a hexane cleanup procedure and extracted further with ethyl acetate. The analysis of zearalenone is by HPLC using a reverse phase radial compression separation system, an ultraviolet absorbance detector and a mobile phase of acetonitrile-water 60:40 (v/v). Recoveries of zearalenone in blood at levels of 50-200 ng/ml are in the range of 66.8-72.6%.

A high pressure liquid chromatographic method for the determination of tetracyclines in blood and organs of experimental animals
Bocker, R. and C. J. Estler (1979), Arzneimittelforschung 29(11): 1690-3.
Abstract: A high-pressure liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the quantitative analysis of tetracyclines from biological material. Tetracyclines can be extracted from serum or organ homogenates by means of acetonitrile containing buffer. The extract is chromatographed on a reversed-phase column and the tetracyclines are monitored spectrophotometerically at 357 nm. Tetracyclines, pyrrolidinomethyl-tetracycline, 4-epitetracycline, and doxycycline are thus separated within 8 min. The lowest concentration for the intact molecule detectable are 0.2 micrograms/ml serum or blood and 0.4 micrograms/g organ. In a comparative study the new extraction procedure and the chromatographic analysis yielded the same results as a microbiological method.

A high-fructose diet induces insulin resistance but not blood pressure changes in normotensive rats
Bezerra, R. M., M. Ueno, et al. (2001), Braz J Med Biol Res 34(9): 1155-60.
Abstract: Rats fed a high-fructose diet represent an animal model for insulin resistance and hypertension. We recently showed that a high-fructose diet containing vegetable oil but a normal sodium/potassium ratio induced mild insulin resistance with decreased insulin receptor substrate-1 tyrosine phosphorylation in the liver and muscle of normal rats. In the present study, we examined the mean blood pressure, serum lipid levels and insulin sensitivity by estimating in vivo insulin activity using the 15-min intravenous insulin tolerance test (ITT, 0.5 ml of 6 microg insulin, iv) followed by calculation of the rate constant for plasma glucose disappearance (Kitt) in male Wistar-Hannover rats (110-130 g) randomly divided into four diet groups: control, 1:3 sodium/potassium ratio (R Na:K) diet (C 1:3 R Na:K); control, 1:1 sodium/potassium ratio diet (CNa 1:1 R Na:K); high-fructose, 1:3 sodium/potassium ratio diet (F 1:3 R Na:K), and high-fructose, 1:1 sodium/potassium ratio diet (FNa 1:1 R Na:K) for 28 days. The change in R Na:K for the control and high-fructose diets had no effect on insulin sensitivity measured by ITT. In contrast, the 1:1 R Na:K increased blood pressure in rats receiving the control and high-fructose diets from 117 +/- 3 and 118 +/- 3 mmHg to 141 +/- 4 and 132 +/- 4 mmHg (P < 0.05), respectively. Triacylglycerol levels were higher in both groups treated with a high-fructose diet when compared to controls (C 1:3 R Na:K: 1.2 +/- 0.1 mmol/l vs F 1:3 R Na:K: 2.3 +/- 0.4 mmol/l and CNa 1:1 R Na:K: 1.2 +/- 0.2 mmol/l vs FNa 1:1 R Na:K: 2.6 +/- 0.4 mmol/l, P < 0.05). These data suggest that fructose alone does not induce hyperinsulinemia or hypertension in rats fed a normal R Na:K diet, whereas an elevation of sodium in the diet may contribute to the elevated blood pressure in this animal model.

A high-salt diet alters circadian blood pressure rhythm in Dahl rats
Hashimoto, J., Y. Imai, et al. (1994), Tohoku J Exp Med 173(3): 345-54.
Abstract: To determine whether salt loading and salt sensitivity are related to the circadian variation in blood pressure (BP), we studied the circadian rhythm of BP in Dahl rats. Thirteen Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl-S) and 14 salt-resistant (Dahl-R) rats were fed a high- or low-salt diet after weaning. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured every 4 sec throughout 24 hr in freely moving rats, and the data obtained were analyzed quantitatively by the cosinor method. MAP mesor was significantly elevated in Dahl-S rats on a high-salt diet (SH), as compared with those on a low-salt diet (SL), but there was no difference in the MAP mesor between Dahl-R rats on a high-salt diet (RH) and those on a low-salt diet (RL). MAP amplitude was significantly greater and HR amplitude was smaller in SH rats than in SL rats; the amplitudes of MAP and HR in RH rats were similar to those in RL rats. MAP acrophase was significantly delayed in SH and RH rats as compared with SL and RL rats, respectively; the time delay in the MAP acrophase was not accompanied by a synchronized delay in HR acrophase. The time delay in MAP acrophase was greater in SH rats than in RH rats. These results indicate that salt loading influences the amplitude and acrophase of BP, and that the effect of salt loading on circadian BP rhythm is modulated by salt sensitivity.

A history of the Council for High Blood Pressure research. Past imperfect, present indicative, and future perfect
Page, I. H. (1984), Hypertension 6(2 Pt 2): I208-10.

A history of the Council for High Blood Pressure Research: the first 50 years
Dustan, H. P. (1997), Hypertension 30(6): 1307-17.

A hospital-based screening, referral, and follow-up program for high blood pressure
Theisen, V., J. R. Caldwell, et al. (1979), Am J Public Health 69(6): 599-601.
Abstract: A hypertension program staffed largely by volunteer nurses in a hospital outpatient department is described. A three-year evaluation shows 19% of 4,282 clients screened as having high readings, 86% of those referred saw a physician for high blood pressure, 92% of those who saw a physician began treatment for high blood pressure and 50% of those under treatment were showing successful control or progress toward successful control.

A hypertension survey: respondents' knowledge of high blood pressure
Hinds, C. (1983), Int Nurs Rev 30(1): 12-4.

A medical anthropologist voices a note of caution: "high blood" is not high blood pressure
Snow, L. F. (1976), Urban Health 5(3): 54-5.

A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT) among healthy normotensive and essential hypertensive elderly patients to determine the effect of high salt (NaCl) diet of blood pressure
Alam, S. and A. G. Johnson (1999), J Hum Hypertens 13(6): 367-74.
Abstract: To examine the effect of chronic NaCl ingestion on blood pressure (BP) in the elderly, a meta-analysis was undertaken of 11 randomised controlled trials of which five included patients > or =60 years of age only and six included patients with a mean age close to 60 years. The following databases were used: Medline, Embase, Current Contents, The Cochrane Library, the AMI and IPA databases. Mean erect systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP/DBP) on chronic (> or =9 weeks) high and low NaCl diets were recorded, the pooled mean effect, the pooled standard error and 95% confidence intervals (Cl) were calculated and linear regression was used to evaluate the potential association between NaCl intake and BP. When all trials were pooled, a chronic high NaCl diet significantly increased mean SBP and DBP by 5.58 mm Hg (95%Cl 4.31-6.85) and 3.5 mm Hg (95%Cl 2.62-4.38) respectively. There was a significant association between the level of NaCl intake and SBP (P = 0.05, r2 = 0.37) but not DBP (P = 0.76, r2 = 0.01). When trials were pooled separately, a chronic high NaCl diet increased SBP by 5.46 mm Hg (95%Cl 3.56-7.36) and DBP by 2.63 mm Hg (95%Cl 1.18-4.08) in trials including patients > or =60 years of age only, and increased SBP by 3.27 mm Hg (95%Cl 1.23-5.31) and DBP by 2.69 mm Hg (95%Cl 1.44-3.94) in trials including patients with a mean age close to 60 years. These data suggest that a chronic high NaCl diet in elderly patients with essential hypertension is associated with an increase in SBP and DBP, the association is significant for both SBP and DBP but more marked for SBP than DBP, the effect is more pronounced the older the patient and NaCl dose strongly predicts SBP in older patients.

A model for high-pressure ultrafiltration of blood
Moussy, Y. (2000), Biotechnol Bioeng 69(1): 21-30.
Abstract: A semi-analytic model to predict the permeate flux during high-pressure ultrafiltration of blood with highly permeable membranes is proposed. This model explicitly considers the hydraulic resistance of the retained particles that limits the flux. An empirically derived relationship between particle surface concentration and hydraulic resistance is used. This model incorporates the axial variations in blood cell and solute surface concentrations (or concentration polarization), shear-induced diffusion coefficient for the blood cells, effective diffusion coefficient for the blood solutes, hydraulic (lumen) pressure, and flow rate. This model agrees well with experimental results in the pressure-independent filtration flux region.

A model for the pharmacist's involvement in high blood pressure control
McKenney, J. M. (1981), Fam Community Health 4(1): 53-61.

A nested case-control study on the high-normal blood pressure as a risk factor of hypertension in Korean middle-aged men
Bae, J. M. and Y. O. Ahn (2002), J Korean Med Sci 17(3): 328-36.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to identify the 'high-normal blood pressure' as a risk factor of hypertension for applying primary prevention strategy in Korean people. To keep time sequence of events, and to prevent information bias, nested case control study was chosen for avoiding measurement errors because hypertension is a benign disease. Source population consisted of the 'Seoul Cohort' participants and follow-up was done by using Korea Medical Insurance Corporation's database on the utilization of health services from January 1, 1993 to June 30, 1997. Incidence cases were ascertained through the chart review, telephone contacts, and direct blood pressure measurements. Controls included the pairing of 4 individuals to each case on the basis of age. The statistically significant risk factors of hypertension were body mass index, dietary fiber, alcohol consumption, weekly activity, and history of quitting smoking as well as high-normal blood pressure (p<0.05). The multivariate odds ratio of high-normal blood pressure adjusted for all risk factors was 1.84 (95% CI, 1.31-2.56). Thus, the 'high-normal blood pressure' is considered as a risk factor for hypertension in Korean middle-aged men, which suggests that the vigorous lifestyle modification for persons with 'high-normal blood pressure' is needed.

A new comprehensive technique of catheterisation, blood sampling, sample preparation and sample analysis by means of high-pressure liquid chromatography for pharmacokinetic studies with estradiol-linked nitrosoureas and their metabolites
Betsch, B., M. R. Berger, et al. (1990), Arzneimittelforschung 40(9): 1022-5.
Abstract: Estradiol-linked nitrosoureas are offering new perspectives in the antineoplastic chemotherapy of estradiol-receptor positive mammary carcinomas. In such a molecule estradiol has the function of a carrier which brings about a specific accumulation of the anticancer drug in estradiol-receptor containing tumor cells. However, there is only little knowledge about the pharmacokinetic behavior of this new group of anticancer agents. For that reason a new comprehensive technique of catheterisation, blood sampling, sample preparation and sample analysis with high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) for preclinical pharmacokinetic studies with estradiol-linked nitrosoureas and their metabolites has been developed. N-(2-Chloroethyl)-N-nitroso-carbamoyl-L-alanine-estradiol-17-ester (CNC-alanine-estradiol-17-ester) and N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-nitroso-carbamoyl-L-alanine (CNC-alanine) were used as test compounds. The drugs were tested in female Sprague-Dawley rats with chemically induced mammary carcinomas. The laboratory animals were supplied with two catheters prior to the pharmacokinetic experiments. The blood samples were drawn from the vena cava catheter after the drug had been applied through a vena jugularis catheter. The compounds were extracted from plasma with C18 silicagel reversed phase cartridges. The clean-up technique delivered clear samples only slightly contaminated with the biological matrix. The recovery from plasma was 75 +/- 5% for the hormone-linked CNC-alanine-estradiol-17-ester and 70 +/- 5% for the unlinked CNC-alanine. The analysis was carried out by means of HPLC.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

A new locus on chromosome 3 strongly linked with salt-sensitive high blood pressure in female F2 from SHRSP and WKY rats
Matsumoto, C., Y. Nara, et al. (1995), Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol Suppl 22(1): S2-3.
Abstract: 1. We investigated candidate loci for salt-sensitive high blood pressure in F2 progeny from crossing Wistar-Kyoto rats and stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. 2. The average systolic and diastolic blood pressure did not increase in male and female F2 progeny by the 12th day after salt loading. 3. In female F2 progeny, systolic and diastolic blood pressure became strongly linked with the MITR244 locus on chromosome 3, 1 month and 12 days after salt loading. 4. This locus became linked with blood pressure only in the female F2 progeny and not in the males. 5. These results indicate that hormonal factors and gender differences, in particular, might influence salt sensitivity.

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